Kamis, 03 Mei 2012

HIERARKI DARI KEBUTUHAN MANUSIA MENURUT MASLOW

Abraham Maslow dikenal sebagai pelopor aliran psikologi humanistik. Maslow percaya bahwa manusia tergerak untuk memahami dan menerima dirinya. Salah satu hal menarik di awal karirnya adalah ketika melihat beberapa kebutuhan lebih didahulukan dibanding yang lainnya. Sebagai contohnya, ketika haus dan lapar, maka Anda akan terlebih dahulu mengatasi haus dibandingkan lapar. Karena tanpa makanan kita dapat bertahan selama beberapa minggu, tetapi tanpa minuman hanya beberapa hari saja. Sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa kebutuhan akan minuman lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan makanan. Maslow mengambil ide ini dan menciptakan apa yang saat ini dikenal dengan Hierarchy of Needs.

Gambar 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

Maslow menggunakan piramida (gambar 1) sebagai peraga untuk memvisualisasikan gagasannya mengenai teori hierarki kebutuhan. Menurut Maslow, manusia termotivasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan-kebutuhan hidupnya. Kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut memiliki tingkatan atau hierarki, mulai yang paling rendah (bersifat dasar) sampai yang paling tinggi.
Maslow membagi kebutuhan manusia menjadi lima tingkatan, antara lain sebagai berikut:

1.      The Physiological Needs
Kebutuhan fisiologis merupakan kebutuhan yang paling mendasar dan sangat penting untuk bertahan hidup. Diantaranya adalah kebutuhan udara, air, makanan, tidur, dll. Maslow percaya bahwa kebutuhan fisiologis sangat penting dan naluriah di dalam hierarki kebutuhan karena kebutuhan yang lain menjadi sekunder sampai kebutuhan ini terpenuhi.
Kebutuhan ini dinamakan juga basic needs yang jika tidak terpenuhi dalam keadaan yang sangat ekstrim maka manusia yang bersangkutan kehilangan kendali atas perilakunya sendiri karena seluruh kapasitas manusia tersebut dikerahkan dan dipusatkan hanya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dasarnya itu.

2.      The Safety and Security Needs
Ketika kebutuhan fisiologis telah terpenuhi maka akan muncul kebutuhan akan keamanan. Diantaranya; physical security (aman dari kejahatan dan agresi), security of employment (keselamatan kerja), security of revenues and resources (keamanan sumber daya), moral and physiological security (keamanan fisiologis), familial security (keamanan keluarga), security of health (keamanan kesehatan), dan security of personal property against crime (keamanan kekayaan pribadi dari kejahatan).
Karena adanya kebutuhan inilah maka dibuat aturan, undang-undang, mengembangkan kepercayaan, membuat sistem asuransi, pensiun, dan sebagainya. Sama halnya dengan basic needs, kalau safety needs ini terlalu lama dan banyak tidak terpenuhi maka pandangan seseorang tentang dunianya bisa terpengaruh dan pada gilirannya pun perilakunya akan cenderung ke arah negatif.

3.      The Love and Belonging Needs
Manusia biasanya membutuhkan rasa dimiliki dan diterima, apakah datang dari kelompok sosial yang luas (kelompok, kantor, perkumpulan keagamaan, organisasi profesional, tim olahraga, geng, dll.) atau koneksi sosial yang kecil (anggota keluarga, pasangan, mentor, teman kuliah, sahabat karib). Mereka membutuhkan untuk mencintai dan dicintai oleh yang lainnya. Tidak terpenuhinya kebutuhan ini maka orang akan menjadi rentan merasa sendirian, gelisah, dan depresi. Kekurangan rasa cinta dan dimiliki juga berhubungan dengan penyakit fisik seperti penyakit hati.

4.      The Esteem Needs
Menurut Maslow, semua manusia membutuhkan penghargaan, menghargai diri sendiri, dan juga menghargai orang lain. Orang perlu melibatkan diri untuk mendapatkan pengakuan dan mempunyai kegiatan atau kontribusi kepada orang lain dan juga nilai diri, baik di dalam pekerjaan ataupun hobi.
Terdapat dua tingkatan kebutuhan penghargaan/penghormatan. Tingkatan yang lebih rendah terkait dengan unsur-unsur ketenaran, rasa hormat dan kemuliaan. Tingkatan yang lebih tinggi mengikat pada konsep kepercayaan diri, kompetensi, dan prestasi. Tingkatan yang lebih rendah umumnya dianggap miskin. Hal ini tergantung orang lain atau seseorang membutuhkan diyakinkan karena harga diri yang lebih rendah. Orang dengan harga diri yang rendah membutuhkan penghargaan dari orang lain. Namun, keyakinan, kompetensi, dan prestasi hanya membutuhkan satu orang dan orang lain tidaklah penting untuk kesuksesan sendiri.

Semua empat tingkatan sebelumnya disebut deficit needs, atau D-needs. Yaitu, jika Anda tidak memiliki cukup sesuatu (defisit) maka akan merasa perlu. Tetapi jika Anda mendapatkan semua yang dibutuhkan maka tidak akan merasakan apa-apa. Seperti halnya, “You don’t miss your water till your well runs dry!”

5.      Self Actualization Needs
Aktualisasi diri adalah kebutuhan naluriah manusia untuk memanfaatkan kemampuan mereka yang unik dan berusaha menjadi yang terbaik. Maslow menggambarkan aktualisasi diri sebagai berikut:
Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is. (Psychological Review, 1949)
Selain menggambarkan apa yang dimaksud dengan aktualisasi diri dalam teorinya, Maslow juga mengidentifikasi beberapa karakteristik kunci dari aktualisasi diri seseorang, antara lain:
§  Acceptance and Realism
Mempunyai persepsi realistis dari diri mereka sendiri, orang lain dan lingkungan di sekitar mereka.
§  Problem-centering
Prihatin dengan pemecahan masalah di luar diri mereka, termasuk membantu orang lain dan mencari solusi terhadap permasalahan di lingkungan luar mereka. Orang-orang seperti ini sering termotivasi oleh tangggung jawab pribadi dan etika.
§  Spontaneity
Spontan dalam pikiran internal dan perilaku mereka keluar. Mereka dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan aturan dan harapan sosial, cenderung terbuka dan tidak konvensional.
§  Autonomy and Solitude
Karakteristik lain dari aktualisasi diri seseorang adalah kebutuhan akan kebebasan dan privasi.
§  Continued Freshness of Appreciation
Melihat dunia dengan penghargaan, kekaguman yang berlangsung terus menerus. Bahkan, pengalaman sederhana terus menjadi sumber inspirasi dan kesenangan.
§  Peak Experiences
Individu yang mencapai aktualisasi diri sering memiliki apa yang dimaksud pengalaman puncak Maslow, atau saat suka cita. Setelah semua pengalaman ini orang merasa terinspirasi, diperkuat, diperbaharui atau ditransformasikan.

Untuk tingkatan yang terakhir (kelima) ini sedikit berbeda. Maslow telah menggunakan berbagai istilah untuk merujuk ke tingkat ini. Dia menyebutnya growth motivation (berbeda dengan motivasi defisit), being needs (atau B-needs, berbeda dengan D-needs), dan self-actualization itu sendiri.
Maslow percaya bahwa satu-satunya alasan bahwa orang tidak akan bergerak dengan baik dari arah aktualisasi diri adalah karena kendala di masyarakat. Maslow menyatakan bahwa pendidik harus menanggapi potensi individu telah untuk tumbuh menjadi orang yang mengaktualisasi dirinya sendiri. Sepuluh poin yang harusnya menjadi acuan bagi pendidik adalah sebagai berikut:
§  Kita harus mengajar orang untuk menjadi otentik, untuk menyadari diri batin mereka dan mendengar perasaan mereka.
§  Kita harus mengajar orang untuk mengatasi pengkondisian budaya mereka dan menjadi warga negara dunia.
§  Kita harus membantu orang menemukan panggilan mereka dalam hidup, nasib atau takdir. Hal ini terutama difokuskan pada menemukan karir dan pasangan yang tepat.
§  Kita harus mengajarkan orang bahwa hidup ini berharga, bahwa ada sukacita yang harus dialami dalam kehidupan, dan jika orang yang terbuka untuk melihat yang baik dan gembira dalam semua jenis situasi, itu membuat hidup layak.
§  Kita harus menerima orang seperti dia dan membantu orang belajar sifat batin mereka. Dari pengetahuan bakat dan keterbatasan, kita potensi apa yang membangun.
§  Kita harus melihat kebutuhan dasar orang dipenuhi.
§  Mengajarkan orang untuk menghargai keindahan dan hal-hal baik lainnya di alam dan dalam hidup.
§  Mengajarkan kontrol yang baik, dan meninggalkan yang buruk. Dibutuhkan kontrol untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup di semua daerah.
§  Mengajarkan untuk mengatasi masalah sederhana dan bergulat dengan masalah serius dalam kehidupan.
§  Mengajarkan untuk menjadi pemilih yang baik.

Referensi:
Abraham Maslow. di Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia. diakses 30 April 2012. dari http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow
Abraham Maslow Hirarki Kebutuhan Model Motivasi. (2009). diakses 30 April 2012. dari http://wartawarga.gunadarma.ac.id/2009/11/abraham-maslow-hirarki-kebutuhan-model-motivasi/
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. diakses 30 April 2012. dari http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). diakses 30 April 2012. dari http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. di psychology Wikia. diakses 30 Aprril 2012. dari http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs
Teori Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow. (2010). diakses 30 April 2012. dari http://belajarpsikologi.com/teori-hierarki-kebutuhan-maslow/

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